Posted in 15 December 2014, by Mic, kategori Departments, Industrial Engineering, News

laluLarge archipelago country like Indonesia, a country that can not be separated by the presence of water areas, especially the sea. Each island has its own characteristics for the territory, which integrates and continues to grow. To connect separate areas such as well as to guarantee equal and movement of goods and population, transportation has a very important role.

Seaports as one of the essential elements of a series of mainly marine transportation network, must be able to support the activities of transportation or transporting people and goods from one place (hinterland) to another (Foreland). The selection of ports that provide the best service is an important decision issues that will give good impact to the economy of the area around the port in particular and the country in general.

Some research has been conducted in developed countries in the development of ports, among others, Wu Heng (2005) in his journal to identify factors that affect the competitiveness improvement of the port, explained that there are eight key factors that increase the competitiveness of the port that is, the level of efficiency of port operations, handling costs cargo port, reliability, preference selection of port operators and shippers, the depth of the navigation channel, the ability to adapt to the changing market environment, landside accessibility, as well as product differentiation. Chang et al. (2008) found five factors are considered relatively important in the selection of ports, among others, port security, the physical condition of the port, the port operating system, marketing and port access charges. Michael Roe (2008) evaluated several factors increase the competitiveness of the port in Korea and China, among other port services, the physical condition of the area around the port, availability, convenience, logistics costs, distance to the city center, and connectivity.

Seeing the development trend of the port in the world, there are several key factors that form the basis for the development of port business in the future, especially in Indonesia, namely containerize, adequate infrastructure, Improvement of port security, and development of technology (LM FE-UI, 2009).

So far, the potential and contribution of regional ports in the arena of development and economic growth in the surrounding region is not known for certain. How management policies as well as existing models of existing port is still very traditional and conventional (Swakelola, 2007). To determine the potential policy strategies and regional ports in Indonesia in economic development it is necessary to revitalize the port policy scenarios related systems based on existing models that already exist in the hope to provide an overview to the central and provincial governments in Indonesia and stakeholders to be more aware of the policy in the development port, potential, and the condition of regional ports.

Based on previous research related to the system of seaports, the resulting output is not going to see the dynamics of the development of the number of users of port services, activities unloading activities and existing capacity from time to time in a comprehensive manner.

When observed, it is not optimal development of the port system in Indonesia, due to inefficiencies in the process of loading and unloading ports and shipping system that has lasted decades. As expressed by the Director of PT Pelabuhan Indonesia II (Pelindo II) RJ Lino, “Has a lot of errors in the system port. Its the sins of the port itself so that our sea transport like this. But in the near future we will fix it immediately,” he promise. The problem is, with all the tangled system in Indonesian ports, from which part we must start revamping?

If we try to look at the dynamic approach, with the primary goal of improving the economic growth of the port itself, directly there are several factors that are of particular concern in the improvement of the port system; port Operating Costs for this many users complained to the port services, the existence of  extortion that roaming everywhere. Port security, becomes an important factor for users of port services, especially in the process of loading and unloading containers which have undergone many criminal acts port.

Taxes/levies, withdrawal of tax/levy on each port perceived service users, especially the process of loading and unloading container increasingly soared, not accompanied by an increase in the quality of services of the port. Technological process of loading and unloading port is still a lot of ports in Indonesia with a conventional system, so that the waiting time of each ship that will carry out the process of loading and unloading time.

The capacity of Warehouse/Storage Area, uneven capacity of the port storage area in Indonesia, resulting in more ships queue ‘exploded’ in the dock, and container truck transporters also queued.

We all know there are two major ports in Indonesia, which became ‘main target’ of service users, especially Tanjung Priok and Tanjung Perak. With a high level of service users, resulting in economic growth was concentrated around the area alone, so the need for equity to support several ports around it.

Of the factors mentioned above, keep in mind, and may have been less considered in determining government policy of port development in Indonesia, commodities export/import through ports in every area in Indonesia. Where the commodity has its own characteristics that are dynamic, as an example of agricultural commodities (Vegetables and Fruits) are strongly influenced by climate/weather in each region are uncertain.

Thus, in “Designing Scenario Port Development Policy in Indonesia” certainly needs attention-facto non-technical factors that are dynamic as described above.


 L. Tri Wijaya N. Kusuma, ST., MT.

Lecturer of Industrial Engineering
Faculty of Engineering – Universitas Brawijaya

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